Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips frankliniella occidentalis. Heavy crop losses in the field were reported in the 1980s in tomato in louisiana and in tomato and lettuce in hawaii. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv tospovirus thrips beet curly top virus bctv geminivirus leafhopper. Viruses free fulltext the tomato spotted wilt virus tswv. Kormelink r, storms m, lent j van, peters d, goldbach r, 1994. Tomato spotted wilt virus pdf wsu plant pathology washington. Tswv is not spread in seed or via mechanical damage although it can be spread through cuttings used for plant propagation. Virus sources for primary infection typically include perennial ornamentals and weeds. Western flower thrips and tomato spotted wilt virus. History and economic impact tomato spotted wilt virus.
Tswv is transmitted exclusively by thrips, with frankliniella occidentalis western flower thrips being the most efficient vector due to its equally large host range. Tospoviruses cause significant losses to a wide range of agronomic and horticultural crops worldwide. Tomato brown rugose fruit virus tobrfv tobrfv is not currently established in california. Here we report the establishment of a rg system for tswv. Tswv is of great concern in many crops in different locations, but so far its. Structure and function analysis of nucleocapsid protein of. Unfortunately, there is no treatment for tomatoes with spotted wilt virus once the plants are infected. Plague thrips and other nonhost thrips cannot acquire the virus, nor can other insects such as aphids. Frameshift 1 upf1 were investigated in infection of arabidopsis thaliana by several rna viruses, including the bunyavirus, tomato spotted wilt virus tswv. Alterations in cellular rna decapping dynamics affect. Tomato spotted wilt affects tomatoes, and numerous other vegetables, ornamentals, field crops and weeds. A characteristic symptom of tswv infecting potato is leaf spots with a target appearance similar to early blight, but the spots are smaller and tend to be clustered.
Be on the lookout for this plant virus in tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, potatoes, and tobacco. From the ncsu plant disease and insect clinics website. Symptoms the distribution of infected plants in a field. The spotted wilt virus also has a wide host range and can affect a number of ornamental plants as well as tomato. Tswv causes serious diseases in numerous agronomic and ornamental crops worldwide and ranks among. Studies on tomato spotted wilt virus infection in tomato. Pdf an update of the host range of tomato spotted wilt virus. Abstract the effects of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv on yield and quality of tomato fruits were studied from may through november of 2004 at the experimental field of the agricultural faculty of ondokuz mayis university, in samsun province.
It remained the only member of the family until the early 1990s when genetic characterisation of viruses discovered in plants became more common. One of the outstanding features of tsw is the great variety of symptoms seen and variability of the symptom picture even on the dame host. The disease is caused by the tomato spotted wilt virus tswv which is vectored only by small insects called thrips. Examples of dominant resistance genes are ry for potato virus y pvy in potato and sw5 for tomato spotted wilt virus tswv in tomato. The virus infected green zebra tomatoes in a high tunnel at a pittsboro farm. Thripidae two species in particular, western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, and tobacco thrips, f. An update of the host range of tomato spotted wilt virus article pdf available in journal of plant pathology 854. Infected potato seed tswv can be carried from one potato crop to the next through infected seed. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv causes tomato spotted wilt disease of fresh market and processing tomato stunting. May, 2012 return to local crop problems homepage tomato spotted wilt virus tswv has reared its ugly head in chatham county. Tswv is a virus that is spread by at least seven different kinds of tiny insects known as thrips. Identification and control of tomato spotted wilt virus.
The disease can cause significant yield losses of tomato. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv has been found in tennessee crops each year since 1986. South carolina pest management handbook for field crops 2017 192 white mold. Photos and text by debbie roos, agricultural extension agent. Pdf molecular biology of tomato spotted wilt virus. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv, weeds and thrip vectors in the tomato. The type member, tomato spotted wilt tospovirus tswv. Tomato spotted wilt virus a local problem nc state extension. This virus is not seedborne and it is not spread by contact. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv 2 is the type species of the tospovirus 2, 4, the only genus in the family of bunyaviridae that infects plants. Descriptions of plant viruses website provides extensive information about viruses, viroids, and more including descriptions, taxonomic notes, and sequence analyses identification leaves.
Tomato spotted wilt virus an overview sciencedirect topics. It varies from host to host, but for any one host such as tomato or tobacco it varies. Tswv is vectored by at least eight species of thrips, which acquires the virus during the larval stage, and transmits the virus. The genus takes its name from the discovery of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv in australia in 1919. S rna and m rna are ambisense, while l rna is of negative polarity. Tomato, pepper, plus many other vegetables and ornamentals.
Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv and phytophthora infestans late blight in tomato solanum lycopersicum have a worldwide distribution and are known to cause substantial disease damage. Many groups have tried to construct infectious clones for tswv, but all have failed. Expression and subcellular location of the ns protein of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv, a putative viral movement protein. Clustering of spots can result in affected leaves having large areas that are completely dark brown to black, more often at the leaf. Early symptoms of spotted wilt on tomato are difficult to diagnose. Spotted wilt in tomato may cause blotches, spots and bumps on the fruit, often morphing into concentric rings of brown or yellow. Tospoviruses and their complex virus vector interaction were ranked second. The primary crops affected are tobacco, tomato, peppers, and certain greenhouse ornamentals. Tomato spotted wilt virus is transmitted by various species of thrips, including the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, the onion thrips, thrips tabaci, and the chili thrips, scirtothrips dorsalis. White mold sclerotium rolfsii is the most consistently damaging soil disease under s. South carolina pest management handbook for field crops. Tomato spotted wilt virus vce publications virginia tech. Tomato spotted wilt, impatiens necrotic spot and watermelon silver mottle tospoviruses.
Pdf first report of tomato spotted wilt virus on celery. Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus tswv is a spherical negativesense rna virus that has a diameter between 80110nm. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv and thrips vectors tomato spotted wilt virus tswv is the type member of the genus tospovirus, family bunyaviridae. However, some of the original photographs, particularly on some ornamentals, may have been impatiens necrotic spot, a disease caused by a related, but distinct, virus. Tomato spotted wilt virus in potatoes ag0891 spread and source of infection tswv is spread in potato crops by planting infected seed tubers and by some species of thrips, which are small 12mm long, flying insects. It is now common in temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions around the world.
The chapter discusses the time tomato spotted wilt virus tswv. Tomato spotted wilt virus is a plant disease that is now quite common in any temperate, subtropical, and tropical environments around the world. This fungus invades peanut lateral branches in contact with the soil, as well as pods and pegs. Pdf estimation of the effect of tomato spotted wilt. Tswv was first discovered in australia in 1919 and has been present in hawaii since the 1920s. Occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv in jordan. The virus affects over different plant species and has become a major concern for tomato farmers. Nymphs that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants will retain the ability to transmit it for the remainder of. The disease also affects numerous weed and ornamental plant species. Tomato produc tion losses of 75100% from tomato spot ted wilt have been reported in.
In this publication, tomato spotted wilt virus is used to designate the causal agent for the disease tomato spotted wilt. Tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato steve bost, professor entomology and plant pathology tomato spotted wilt virus tswv has been found in tennessee crops each year since 1986. There has been a lot of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv found recently in our area. The orthotospoviruses or tospoviruses are a genus of negative rna virus found within the family tospoviridae of the order bunyavirales. Tomato spotted wilt virus of agronomic, vegetable, and. Tomato spotted wilt virus symptoms can be confused with other viruses. The two main thrips vector species associated with the above reports are the tobacco thrips, frankliniella fusca hinds, and the western flower thrips, f. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eif4e is an example of a recessive resistance gene for potyviruses kang et al. Of the more than 300 species of primarily arthropodborne viruses. Tospovirus is a plant virus vectored by at least 9 species of thrips thysanoptera. Necrotic andor chlorotic spots or streaks on the foliage, leaf petioles and stems.
A high incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv has occurred in crops in virginia and other midatlantic states this season. Tomato spotted wilt, first described in australia in 1919, was later identified as a virus disease. The primary crops affected are tobacco, tomato, peppers, and certain. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv belongs to the genus tospovirus in the family. Management consists of controlling the thrips, tiny insects that transmit the virus to tomatoes and other plants. Tswv has one of the widest host ranges of any plant virus. It takes only a few minutes of feeding for a tomato plant to become infected, and once tswv is acquired, there is no cure. Predictive models for tomato spotted wilt virus spread. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv causes serious diseases of many economically important plants representing 35 plant fami lies, including dicots and.
Tomato spotted wilt virus also infects the thrips vector. First report of tomato spotted wilt virus on celery in china. Tomato spotted wilt virus tswv, a virus with tripartite negativestrandedambisense rna genomes, is one of the most economically important plant viruses in the world. Thrips acquire the virus exclusively as larvae and are then able to transmit the virus for the remainder of their lives. The virus affects many ornamental plants as well as vegetable. Identification of domains of the tomato spotted wilt virus. You can recognize it easily in the red and yellow concentric rings on tomatoes. A high incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus tswv has occurred in crops in virginia and other. Tomato spotted wilt virus fact sheet cornell university. Particles are spherical, and membranebound, occurring singly or in clusters.1533 1135 1048 736 561 1208 1146 1542 371 1477 822 912 105 617 1470 346 1572 761 1135 1036 836 1009 874 1361 942 1308 777 1295 1149 763 1106 1275 893 431 400 428 40